Gender and Communities


REPORT: Gender and migration during the COVID-19 pandemic 

Kambouri, N. (2022) Gender and Migration during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Athens: Centre for Gender Studies



Akbulut, K.K. (2021, January 18). COVID-19 Pandemic Makes LGBT Lives in Turkey More Difficult. BalkanInsight. Retrieved from:

American Psychological Association. (2020, June 29). How COVID-19 impacts sexual and gender minorities. Retrieved from:

Barrientos, J., Guzmán-González, M., Urzúa, A., & Ulloa, F. (2021). Psychosocial impact of COVID-19 pandemic on LGBT people in Chile. Sexologies30(1), e35–e41. Retrieved from:

Carter, K. (2021, April 30). Researchers involve communities of color in examination of COVID-19 disparities. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from:

Chatzipanagiotou, K., Akoni, S., Sandilya, H.,& Morsheimer, S. (2021, July 1). A systemic analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on refugees, migrants and asylum seekers in Cyprus. Friedrich Ebert Stiftung e.V. Retrieved from:

Dawson, L., Kirzinger, A., & Kates, J. (2021, March 11). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on LGBT people. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from:

Dawson, L., McGough, M., Kirzinger, A.,  Sparks, G., Rae, M., Young , G., & Kates J. (2021). The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on LGBT+ People’s Mental Health. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from:

File, T., & Marshall , H. (2021, August 11). Household Pulse Survey Shows LGBT Adults More Likely to Report Living in Households with Food and Economic Insecurity than Non-LGBT Respondents. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved from:

Ghezelbash, D., & Tan, N.F. (2020). The end of the right to seek asylum? : COVID-19 and the future of refugee protection. European University Institute. Retrieved from:

Heslin, K., & Hall J. (2021). Sexual Orientation Disparities in Risk Factors for Adverse COVID-19–Related Outcomes, by Race/Ethnicity — Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2017–2019. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 70(5), 149–154. DOI: Retrieved from:

Hennebry, J. & Hari K.C. (2020). Quarantined! Xenophobia and migrant workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Organization for Migration (IOM). Geneva. Retrieved from:

Human Rights Campaign. (2020). The Economic Impact of COVID-19 on the LGBTQ Community. Retrieved from:

Human Rights Campaign. (2020). The Lives and Livelihoods of Many in the LGBTQ Community are at Risk Amidst COVID-19 Crisis. Retrieved from:

Innovation to Inclusion. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on the lives of people with disabilities. Retrieved from:

LGBTQ Employees and the COVID-19 Pandemic. (2021). Out & Equal- Workplace Advocates. Retrieved from:

Madrigal-Borloz, V. (2020, 28 July). Protection against violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. United Nations General Assembly. A/75/258. Retrieved from:

McGowan V.J., Lowther H.J., Meads C. Life under COVID-19 for LGBT+ people in the UK: systematic review of UK research on the impact of COVID-19 on sexual and gender minority populations. BMJ Open, 11:e050092. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050092. Retrieved from:      

Migration data relevant for the COVID-19 pandemic. (2022). IOMS’s Global Migration Data Portal. Retrieved from:

Mixed Migration Centre. (2022). COVID-19 and social and economic rights of migrants in Mali: Analysis of 4Mi data collected in Mali between July 2020 and January 2021. Retrieved from:

Mukumbang, F.C. (2020). Are asylum seekers, refugees and foreign migrants considered in the COVID-19 vaccine discourse? BMJ Global Health 5:e004085. Retrieved from:

Mukumbang, F.C., Ambe, A.N. & Adebiyi, B.O (2020). Unspoken inequality: how COVID-19 has exacerbated existing vulnerabilities of asylum-seekers, refugees, and undocumented migrants in South Africa. International Journal for Equity in Health 19, 141. Retrieved from:

Örgen, A., Yayla, D., & Yücel, Ş.Y. (2020). The State of the LGBTI+ Community During the COVID-19 Pandemic Research Report. Genç LGBTİ+ Derneği. Retrieved from:

Plan International. (2020). GOING HUNGRY: The impacts of COVID-19 on girls and young women. Retrieved from:

Sanchez, G., Achilli, L. (2020). Stranded: the impacts of COVID-19 on irregular migration and migrant smuggling. European University Institute. Retrieved from:  

Salerno, J. P., Devadas, J., Pease, M., Nketia, B., & Fish, J. N. (2020). Sexual and Gender Minority Stress Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: Implications for LGBTQ Young Persons’ Mental Health and Well-Being. Public Health Reports, 135(6), 721–727. Retrieved from:

Santillana, M. (2021, June 17). The impact of Covid-19 on migrants, asylum seekers and refugees. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA). Retrieved from:

Sears, B., Conron, K., & Flores, A. (2021). The Impact of the Fall 2020 COVID-19 Surge on LGBT Adults in the US. The Williams Institute. Retrieved from:

Shimizutani, S. & Yamada, E. (2021). Resilience against the pandemic: The impact of COVID-19 on migration and household welfare in Tajikistan. PLoS ONE 16(9): e0257469. Retrieved from:

Schneider, H. (2020, October 7). Women of colour are worst affected by the U.S. COVID-19 labour shock. World Economic Forum. Retrieved from:

Shullman, S., & Evans Jr., A. (2020, April 27). COVID-19 Does Discriminate-  It Targets the Most Vulnerable. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from:

The Human Rights Campaign. (2021). COVID-19 and the LGBTQ Community: Vaccinations and the Economic Toll of the Pandemic. Retrieved from:

UNHCR. (2021). Refugees and the Impact of COVID-19. Retrieved from:

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. (2021, October 1). COVID-19 threatens four ‘lost decades’ for gender equality. Retrieved from:

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA).(2020). Impact of COVID-19 on Migrants and Refugees in the Arab Region. Retrieved from:—arabstates/—ro-beirut/documents/publication/wcms_764756.pdf

United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). (2021). A Pandemic of Exclusion. The impact of COVID-19 on the human rights of migrants in Libya. Retrieved from:

Walking the talk: supporting young LGBTIQ+ people in our COVID-19. (2020). Plan International. Retrieved from:

WHO. (2020). ApartTogether survey- Preliminary Overview of Refugees and Migrants Self-Reported Impact of Covid-19. Retrieved from:

World Bank. (2020). COVID-19 Crisis Through a Migration Lens. Migration and Development Brief, 32. World Bank. Washington, DC. Retrieved from:


European Commission (2020, June 24). COVID-19’s impact on migrant communities. Retrieved from:

ILGA-Europe. (2020). COVID-19 and specific impact on LGBTI people and what authorities should be doing to mitigate impact. European Union’s Justice Programme, 2014 – 2020. Retrieved from:

LGBT Foundation. (2020, May 29). Why LGBT People are Disproportionaly Affected by COVID-19. Retrieved from:

Rodenberg, B., Šišić, M., & Prosinger, J. (2021, June 29). Hard-Won Progress on Gender Equality Destroyed: The Impact of the COVID-19 Crisis on Women and LGBTIQ. The Green Political Foundation. Retrieved from:

Uldry M., & Leenkenecht A. S. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 on persons with disabilities: European Leaders must act now Extract from the Human Rights Report 2020. European Disability Forum. Retrieved from:


Kondilis, E., Papamichail, D., McCann, S., Carruthers, E., Veizis, A., Orcuttd, M.,& Hargreave, S. (2021). The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on refugees and asylum seekers in Greece: A retrospective analysis of national surveillance data from 2020. EClinicalMedicine, 37, 100958. Retrieved from: