Gender, care and labour


REPORT: Gender, care, and labour during the pandemic 

Kambouri, N. (2022). Gender, care, and labour during the pandemic. Athens: Centre for Gender Studies. 



Bateman, N. & Ross, M. (2020, October). Why has COVID-19 been especially harmful for working women? THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION. Retrieved from:

Chikazhe, L., Mashapure, R., Chavhunduka, D., & Hamunakwadi, P. (2020). Socio-Economic Implications of Covid19 Pandemic to Women Entrepreneurs: A Case of the Informal Sector in Zimbabwe. Business Management and Strategy, 12(1). Retrieved from:

Chung, H., Birkett, H., Forbes, S., & Seo, H. (2021). Covid-19, Flexible Working, and Implications for Gender Equality in the United Kingdom. Gender & Society, 35(2), 218–232. Retrieved from:

Conaghan, J. (2020, May 7). COVID-19 and inequalities at work: a gender lens. Futures of Work. Retrieved from: 

Decker M, Wood N, Thiongo M, Byrne M, Devoto B, et al. (2021) Gendered health, economic, social and safety impact of COVID-19 on adolescents and young adults in Nairobi, Kenya. PLOS ONE, 16(11): e0259583. Retrieved from:

Del Boca, D., Oggero, N., Profeta, P. et al. (2020). Women’s and men’s work, housework and childcare, before and during COVID-19. Review of Economics of the Household 181001–1017. Retrieved from:

Equality Fund (2020, May 21). A Feminist Action Agenda for Canada’s Global Response to COVID-19. Retrieved from:

Fabrizio, S., Malta, V. & Tavares, M. (2020, July 1). Why COVID-19 is a backwards step for gender equality – and what to do about it. World Economic Forum. Retrieved from:

Fewer women than men will regain employment during the COVID-19 recovery says ILO. (2021, July 19). International Labour Organization (ILO). Retrieved from:–en/index.htm

Flor, L., Friedman, J., Spencer, C., Cagney, J.,  Arrieta, A., Herbert, M. et al. (2022). Quantifying the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on gender equality on health, social, and economic indicators:a comprehensive review of data from March, 2020, to September, 2021. Elsevier Ltd. DOI: Retrieved from:

Hasselaar, E. & Saldarriaga Jiménez, A. (2020, July 22). The COVID-19 crisis disproportionately affects women – here’s how Latin America is addressing it. World Economic Forum. Retrieved from:

International Labour Organization (ILO). (2020). Gendered impacts of COVID-19 on the garment sector. Retrieved from:—asia/—ro-bangkok/—sro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_760374.pdf

Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, et al. (2020). Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(3):e203976. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976. Retrieved from:

Landivar, L., Ruppanner, L., Scarborough, W., & Collins, C. (2020). Early Signs Indicate That COVID-19 Is Exacerbating Gender Inequality in the Labor Force. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, 6, 1-3. . Retrieved from:

Lee, C. (2021, November 10). Women’s Work is Essential and Undervalued During the COVID-19 Pandemic. New Security Beat. Retrieved from:

Levine C. (2020, April 23). If You Are an Essential Worker, You Are Probably a Woman. Nonprofit Quarterly. Retrieved from:

Llop-Gironés, A., Vračar, A., Llop-Gironés, G. et al. (2021). Employment and working conditions of nurses: where and how health inequalities have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic?. Hum Resour Health 19112. Retrieved from:

Masterson, V. (2020, October 20). Why COVID-19 could force millions of women to quit work – and how to support them. World Economic Forum. Retrieved from:

Matlali, L. (2021, May 28). Women are essential to the economy – so let’s treat them that way. World Economic Forum. Retrieved from:

McLaughlin, M. (2020, June 1). We Must Protect Girls And Women From the Lasting Economic Impacts of Covid-19. Plan International. Retrieved from:

Mele BS, Holroyd-Leduc JM, Harasym P, et al. (2021). Healthcare workers’ perception of gender and work roles during the COVID-19 pandemic: a mixed-methods study. BMJ Open, 11:e056434. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-056434. Retrieved from:

Neely, M. T. (2020, June 3). Essential and Expendable: Gendered Labor in the Coronavirus Crisis. Stanford University. Retrieved from:

Nesbitt-Ahmed, Z. & Subrahmanian, R. (2020, April 23). Caring in the time of COVID-19: Gender, unpaid care work and social protection. UNICEF. Retrieved from:

OECD (2021, December 13). Caregiving in Crisis: Gender inequality in paid and unpaid work during COVID-19. Retrieved from:  

Petts, R., Carlson, D., & Pepin, J. (2020). A gendered pandemic: Childcare, homeschooling, and parents’ employment during COVID-19. Wiley Online Library, 28(2), 515–534. Retrieved from:

PLAN INTERNATIONAL. (6 APRIL 2020). How to support women’s economic well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. Retrieved from:

Profeta, P. (2021). Gender Equality and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Labour Market, Family Relationships and Public Policy. Intereconomics, 56(5), 270–273. Retrieved from:

Power, K. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the care burden of women and families. Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 16: 1, 67-73, Retrieved from:

UN DESA Statistics Division. (2021, March 8). Time spent in unpaid work; total work burden; and work-life balance. Retrieved from:

UN Women. (2021). COVID-19 and fiscal policy: Applying gender-responsive budgeting in support and recovery. Retrieved from:

UN Women. (2020). COVID-19 and the care economy: Immediate action and structural transformation for a gender-responsive recovery. Retrieved from:

UN Women and UN ESCWA. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 on Gender Equality in the Arab Region. Retrieved from:

World Economic Forum. (2020, May 22). COVID-19: How do we ensure women aren’t left behind? Retrieved from:’t-left-behind?fbclid=IwAR2Yd5q0IwQGDOyyrg7zDQsLxCcgdGL0p7PQBy-_K1anuzBjilbrqIPMcf4 

World Economic Forum. (2021, March 31). Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Economic Gender Gaps. In Global Gender Gap Report 2021 (pp. 43- 58). Retrieved from:

Yavorsky, J., Qian, Y.,& Sargent A. The gendered pandemic: The implications of COVID-19 for work and family. Wiley Online Library, 16(5), e12881. Retrieved from:


Blaskó, Z., Papadimitriou, E., & Manca, A.R. (2020). How will the COVID-19 crisis affect existing gender divides in Europe?, EUR 30181 EN, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, doi:10.2760/37511. Retrieved from:

Boca, D., Oggero, N., Profeta, P., & Rossi, M. (2020). Women’s Work, Housework and Childcare, before and during COVID-19. IZA Institute of Labor Economics. Retrieved from:

Cilia, F., Halland, & Anders (2019). Childbirth, household labor division and gender equality: evidence from ten European countries. Norwegian School of Economics. Bergen: 2019. Retrieved from:

Camussi, E., Rella, R., Grigis , P., Sassi, C., & Annovazzi, C. (2021). Women and Covid19: How the Italian Government Task Force Fostered Gender Equity. Frontiers in Human Dynamics, 3:704727. doi: 10.3389/fhumd.2021.704727. Retrieved from:

European Institute for Gender Equality. (2021, January 20). Gender inequalities in care and consequences for the labour market. Retrieved from:

European Institute for Gender Equality. (2020, November 19). Gender inequalities in care and pay in the EU. Retrieved from:

Hupkau, C. & Petrongolo, B. (2020). Work, care and gender during the Covid-19 crisis. Centre for Economic Performance- LSE. Retrieved from: